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Saint Thomas Aquinas O.P. , was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. He was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is also known as the Doctor Angelicus and the Doctor Communis. The name Aquinas identifies his ancestral origins in the county of Aquino in present-day Lazio.

Saint Thomas Aquinas
Carlo Crivelli 007.jpg
An altarpiece in Ascoli Piceno, Italy,
by Carlo Crivelli (15th century)
Doctor of the Church
Born 1225
Roccasecca, Kingdom of Sicily
Died 7 March 1274
Fossanova, Papal States
Venerated in Catholic Church
Anglican Communion
Lutheranism
Canonized 18 July 1323, Avignon, Papal States by Pope John XXII
Major shrine Church of the Jacobins, Toulouse, France
Feast 28 January (7 March, until 1969)
Attributes The Summa theologiae, a model church, the sun on the chest of a Dominican friar
Patronage Academics; against storms; against lightning; apologists; Aquino, Italy; Belcastro, Italy; book sellers; Catholic academies, schools, and universities; chastity; Falena, Italy; learning; pencil makers; philosophers; publishers; scholars; students; University of Sto. Tomas; Sto. Tomas, Batangas; theologians.
Gentile da Fabriano 052.jpg
Detail from Valle Romita Polyptych
by Gentile da Fabriano (circa 1400)
Born Tommaso d'Aquino
Alma mater Abbey of Monte Cassino
University of Naples
University of Paris
Notable work
School Scholasticism
Thomism
Metaphysical intellectualism
Medieval realism
Main interests
Metaphysics, logic, theology, mind, epistemology, ethics, politics
Notable ideas
Quinque viae

Saint Thomas Aquinas O.P. (/əˈkwnəs/; Italian: Tommaso d'Aquino, 'Thomas of Aquino'; 1225 – 7 March 1274), was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. He was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is also known as the Doctor Angelicus and the Doctor Communis. The name Aquinas identifies his ancestral origins in the county of Aquino in present-day Lazio.

He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology and the father of Thomism. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy developed or opposed his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, metaphysics, and political theory. Unlike many currents in the Church of the time, Thomas embraced several ideas put forward by Aristotle—whom he called "the Philosopher"—and attempted to synthesize Aristotelian philosophy with the principles of Christianity. The works for which he is best known are the Summa Theologiae and the Summa contra Gentiles. His commentaries on Scripture and on Aristotle form an important part of his body of work. Furthermore, Thomas is distinguished for his eucharistic hymns, which form a part of the Church's liturgy.

The Catholic Church honors Thomas Aquinas as a saint and regards him as the model teacher for those studying for the priesthood, and indeed the highest expression of both natural reason and speculative theology. In modern times, under papal directives, the study of his works was long used as a core of the required program of study for those seeking ordination as priests or deacons, as well as for those in religious formation and for other students of the sacred disciplines (philosophy, Catholic theology, church history, liturgy, and canon law).

Thomas Aquinas is considered one of the Catholic Church's greatest theologians and philosophers. Pope Benedict XV declared: "This (Dominican) Order ... acquired new luster when the Church declared the teaching of Thomas to be her own and that Doctor, honored with the special praises of the Pontiffs, the master and patron of Catholic schools."

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