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The Troubles is the common name for the ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century. Also known internationally as the Northern Ireland conflict, it is sometimes described as a "guerrilla war" or "low-level war". The conflict began in the late 1960s and is usually deemed to have ended with the Good Friday "Belfast" Agreement of 1998. Although the Troubles mainly took place in Northern Ireland, violence spilled over at times into parts of the Republic of Ireland, England and mainland Europe.

The Troubles
a map showing the outline of Ireland in the colour green with the capitals of the North and South marked on it
Political map of Ireland
Date Late 1960s–1998
Location Northern Ireland
Result
Belligerents

State security forces

 United Kingdom


 Ireland

Irish republican paramilitaries

Ulster loyalist paramilitaries

Casualties and losses

British Army: 705
 ∟
RUC: 301
NIPS: 24
TA: 7
Other UK police: 6
Royal Air Force: 4
Royal Navy: 2


Irish Army: 1
Gardaí: 9
IPS: 1
PIRA: 291
INLA: 39
OIRA: 27
IPLO: 9
RIRA: 2
UDA: 91
UVF: 62
RHC: 4
LVF: 3
UR: 2
Civilians killed: 1,841
Total dead: 3,532
Total injured: 47,500+
All casualties: 50,000+

The Troubles (Irish: Na Trioblóidí) is the common name for the ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century. Also known internationally as the Northern Ireland conflict, it is sometimes described as a "guerrilla war" or "low-level war". The conflict began in the late 1960s and is usually deemed to have ended with the Good Friday "Belfast" Agreement of 1998. Although the Troubles mainly took place in Northern Ireland, violence spilled over at times into parts of the Republic of Ireland, England and mainland Europe.

The conflict was primarily political and nationalistic, fuelled by historical events. It also had an ethnic or sectarian dimension, although it was not a religious conflict. A key issue was the constitutional status of Northern Ireland. Unionists/loyalists, who are mostly Protestants and consider themselves British, generally want Northern Ireland to remain within the United Kingdom. Irish nationalists/republicans, who are mostly Catholics and consider themselves Irish, generally want it to leave the United Kingdom and join a united Ireland. The conflict began amid a campaign to end discrimination against the Catholic/nationalist minority by the Protestant/unionist government and police force in 1968. The campaign was met with violence, eventually leading to the deployment of British troops and subsequent warfare.

The main participants in the Troubles were republican paramilitaries such as the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and Irish National Liberation Army (INLA); loyalist paramilitaries such as the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and Ulster Defence Association (UDA); British state security forces – the British Army and Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC); and political activists and politicians. The security forces of the Republic of Ireland played a smaller role. More than 3,500 people were killed in the conflict, of whom 52% were civilians, 32% were members of the British security forces, and 16% were members of paramilitary groups. There has been sporadic violence since the Good Friday Agreement was signed, including a campaign by anti-ceasefire republicans.