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Saint Peter , also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simōn  pronunciation  , according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Church. He is also the "Apostle of the Apostles", an honor 3rd-century theologian Hippolytus of Rome gave him, and the first pope of the Roman Catholic Church, ordained by Jesus in the "Rock of My Church" dialogue in Matthew 16:18. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a major saint and associate him with founding the Church of Antioch and later the Church in Rome, but differ about the authority of his successors in present-day Christianity.

Saint
Apostle, preacher, pope, Patriarch and martyr
Pope-peter pprubens.jpg
Church Early Christian Church
See Rome, Antioch
Papacy began AD 30
Papacy ended between AD 64 and 68
Predecessor Inaugural holder (first pope) (First Patriarch of Antioch)
Successor
Orders
Ordination AD 33
by Jesus Christ
Personal details
Birth name Shimon (Simeon, Simon)
Born Date unknown
Bethsaida, Gaulanitis, Syria, Roman Empire
Died between AD 64 and 68
Clementine Chapel, Vatican Hill, Rome, Italia, Roman Empire
Parents John (or Jonah or Jona)
Occupation Fisherman, clergyman
Sainthood
Feast day Main feast (with Paul the Apostle) 29 June (Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, Lutheranism)
Chair of St Peter in Rome 18 January (Pre-1960 Roman Calendar)
Confession of St Peter 18 January (Anglicanism)
Chair of St Peter 22 February (Catholic Church)
St Peter in Chains 1 August (pre-1960 Roman Calendar)
Venerated in All Christian churches that venerate saints
Canonized Pre-Congregation
Attributes Keys of Heaven, pallium, papal vestments, rooster, man crucified upside down, vested as an Apostle, holding a book or scroll. Iconographically, he is depicted with a bushy white beard and white hair.
Patronage Patronage list
Shrines St. Peter's Basilica

Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa, Hebrew: שמעון בר יונה‎‎ Shim'on bar Yona, Greek: Πέτρος Petros, Latin: Petrus; r. AD 30; d. between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simōn   , according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Church. He is also the "Apostle of the Apostles", an honor 3rd-century theologian Hippolytus of Rome gave him, and the first pope of the Roman Catholic Church, ordained by Jesus in the "Rock of My Church" dialogue in Matthew 16:18. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a major saint and associate him with founding the Church of Antioch and later the Church in Rome, but differ about the authority of his successors in present-day Christianity.

The New Testament indicates that Peter was the son of John (or Jonah or Jona) and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis. His brother Andrew was also an apostle. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples. Originally a fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration. According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah, was part of Jesus's inner circle, thrice denied Jesus and wept bitterly once he realised his deed, and preached on the day of Pentecost.

According to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero Augustus Caesar. It is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, since he saw himself unworthy to be crucified in the same way as Jesus. Tradition holds that he was crucified at the site of the Clementine Chapel. His remains are said to be those contained in the underground Confessio of St. Peter's Basilica, where Pope Paul VI announced in 1968 the excavated discovery of a first-century Roman cemetery. Every June 29 since 1736, a statue of Saint Peter in St. Peter's Basilica is adorned with papal tiara, ring of the fisherman, and papal vestments, as part of the celebration of the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul. According to Catholic doctrine, the direct papal successor to Saint Peter is the incumbent pope, currently Pope Francis.

Two general epistles in the New Testament are ascribed to Peter, but modern scholars reject the Petrine authorship of both. The Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peter's preaching and eyewitness memories. Several other books bearing his name – the Acts of Peter, Gospel of Peter, Preaching of Peter, Apocalypse of Peter, and Judgment of Peter – are considered by Christian churches as apocryphal, and are thus not included in the canon of the Bible.

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