Pope Benedict XVI ">[ˈjoːzɛf ˈalɔʏzjʊs ˈʁatsɪŋɐ]; on 16 April 1927) served as Pope of the Catholic Church from 2005 to 2013. He was elected pope on 19 April 2005, was inaugurated on 24 April 2005 and resigned from the office on 28 February 2013. Benedict's election occurred in a papal conclave following the death of Pope John Paul II.
|Pope Emeritus |
Benedict XVI in 2010
|Papacy began||19 April 2005|
|Papacy ended||28 February 2013|
|Predecessor||John Paul II|
|Ordination||29 June 1951 |
by Michael von Faulhaber
|Consecration||28 May 1977 |
by Josef Stangl
|Created Cardinal||27 June 1977 |
by Paul VI
|Birth name||Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger|
|Born|| 16 April 1927 |
|Nationality||German (with Vatican citizenship)|
|Residence||Mater Ecclesiae, Vatican City|
|Parents||Joseph Ratzinger, Sr. and Maria Ratzinger (née Peintner)|
|Previous post||Archbishop of Munich and Freising |
Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria Consolatrice al Tiburtino
President of the International Theological Commission
Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
President of the Pontifical Biblical Commission
Cardinal-Bishop of Velletri-Segni
Dean of the College of Cardinals
Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia
|Motto||Cooperatores veritatis (cooperators of the truth)|
|Coat of arms|
|Other popes named Benedict|
|Papal styles of |
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Pope Emeritus|
Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: Benedictus XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger; [ˈjoːzɛf ˈalɔʏzjʊs ˈʁatsɪŋɐ]; on 16 April 1927) served as Pope of the Catholic Church from 2005 to 2013. He was elected pope on 19 April 2005, was inaugurated on 24 April 2005 and resigned from the office on 28 February 2013. Benedict's election occurred in a papal conclave following the death of Pope John Paul II.
Ordained as a priest in 1951 in his native Bavaria, Ratzinger established himself as a highly regarded university theologian by the late 1950s and was appointed a full professor in 1958. After a long career as an academic and professor of theology at several German universities, he was appointed Archbishop of Munich and Freising and Cardinal by Pope Paul VI in 1977, an unusual promotion for someone with little pastoral experience. In 1981, he was appointed Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, one of the most important dicasteries of the Roman Curia. From 2002 until his election as Pope, he was also Dean of the College of Cardinals, and as such, the primus inter pares among the Cardinals. Prior to becoming Pope, he was "a major figure on the Vatican stage for a quarter of a century"; he had an influence "second to none when it came to setting church priorities and directions" as one of John Paul II's closest confidants.
He was originally a liberal theologian, but adopted conservative views after 1968. His prolific writings defend traditional Catholic doctrine and values. During his papacy, Benedict XVI advocated a return to fundamental Christian values to counter the increased secularisation of many Western countries. He views relativism's denial of objective truth, and the denial of moral truths in particular, as the central problem of the 21st century. He taught the importance of both the Catholic Church and an understanding of God's redemptive love. Pope Benedict also revived a number of traditions, including elevating the Tridentine Mass to a more prominent position. He strengthened the relationship between the Catholic Church and art, promoted the use of Latin, and reintroduced traditional papal garments, for which reason he was called "the pope of aesthetics". He has been described as "the main intellectual force in the Church" since the mid-1980s.
On 11 February 2013, Benedict announced his resignation in a speech in Latin before the cardinals, citing a "lack of strength of mind and body" due to his advanced age. His resignation became effective on 28 February 2013. He is the first pope to resign since Pope Gregory XII in 1415, and the first to do so on his own initiative since Pope Celestine V in 1294. As pope emeritus, Benedict retains the style of His Holiness, and the title of Pope, and continues to dress in the papal colour of white. He was succeeded by Pope Francis on 13 March 2013, and he moved into the newly renovated monastery Mater Ecclesiae for his retirement on 2 May 2013. In his retirement, Benedict XVI has made occasional public appearances alongside Pope Francis.