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The United States Invasion of Panama, code named Operation Just Cause, was an invasion of Panama by the United States between mid-December 1989 and late January 1990. It occurred during the administration of President George H. W. Bush and ten years after the Torrijos–Carter Treaties were ratified to transfer control of the Panama Canal from the U.S. to Panama by 1 January 2000.

Invasion of Panama
Operation Just Cause Rangers 3rd sqd la comadancia small.jpg
U.S. soldiers prepare to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama City, in December 1989.
Date 20 December 1989 (1989-12-20) – 31 January 1990
Location Panama
Result

American victory

Belligerents

 Panama

  • Panama Defense Force
 United States
Panama Panamanian opposition
Commanders and leaders
Manuel Noriega  George H. W. Bush
Maxwell R. Thurman
Guillermo Endara
Strength
12,800 police, national guard, & army +27,000
Casualties and losses
205+ killed
1,906 captured
23 killed
325 wounded

Panamanian civilians killed according to
U.S. military: 202
United Nations: 500
CODEHUCA: 2,500–3,000

1 Spanish journalist killed

The United States Invasion of Panama, code named Operation Just Cause, was an invasion of Panama by the United States between mid-December 1989 and late January 1990. It occurred during the administration of President George H. W. Bush and ten years after the Torrijos–Carter Treaties were ratified to transfer control of the Panama Canal from the U.S. to Panama by 1 January 2000.

During the invasion, de facto Panamanian leader, general, and dictator Manuel Noriega was deposed, president-elect Guillermo Endara sworn into office, and the Panamanian Defense Force dissolved.