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New Mexico ">[ˈnweβo ˈmexiko]; Navajo: Yootó Hahoodzo [jò:txó hàhò:tsò]) is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. It was admitted to the union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. It is usually considered one of the Mountain States. New Mexico is fifth by area, the 36th-most populous, and the sixth-least densely populated of the 50 United States.

State of New Mexico
Flag of New Mexico State seal of New Mexico
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): Land of Enchantment
Motto(s): Crescit eundo (English: It grows as it goes)
Map of the United States with New Mexico highlighted
Spoken languages
  • English 69.69%
  • Spanish 28.45%
  • Navajo 3.5%
  • other 4.09%
Demonym New Mexican
Capital Santa Fe
Largest city Albuquerque
Largest metro Albuquerque metropolitan area
Area Ranked 5th
 • Total 121,589 sq mi
(315,194 km)
 • Width 342 miles (550 km)
 • Length 370 miles (595 km)
 • % water 0.2
 • Latitude 31° 20′ N to 37° N
 • Longitude 103° W to 109° 3′ W
Population Ranked 36th
 • Total 2,085,109 (2015 est)
 • Density 17.2/sq mi  (6.62/km)
Ranked 45th
 • Median household income $45,119 (46th)
Elevation
 • Highest point Wheeler Peak
13,167 ft (4013.3 m)
 • Mean 5,700 ft  (1,740 m)
 • Lowest point Red Bluff Reservoir on Texas border
2,844 ft (867 m)
Before statehood New Mexico Territory
Admission to Union January 6, 1912 (47th)
Governor Susana Martinez (R)
Lieutenant Governor John Sanchez (R)
Legislature New Mexico Legislature
 • Upper house Senate
 • Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators
U.S. House delegation
(list)
Time zone Mountain: UTC −7/−6
ISO 3166 US-NM
Abbreviations NM
Website www.newmexico.gov
New Mexico state symbols
Flag of New Mexico.svg
NewMexico-StateSeal.svg
Living insignia
Bird Greater roadrunner
Fish Rio Grande cutthroat trout
Flower Yucca
Grass Blue grama
Mammal American black bear
Reptile New Mexico whiptail
Tree Two-needle piñon
Inanimate insignia
Colors Red and yellow
Food Chili peppers
Fossil Coelophysis
Gemstone Turquoise
Motto Crescit eundo
Nickname The Land of Enchantment
Song "O' Fair New Mexico"
State route marker
New Mexico state route marker
State quarter
New Mexico quarter dollar coin
Released in 2008
Lists of United States state symbols

New Mexico (Spanish: Nuevo México [ˈnweβo ˈmexiko]; Navajo: Yootó Hahoodzo [jò:txó hàhò:tsò]) is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. It was admitted to the union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. It is usually considered one of the Mountain States. New Mexico is fifth by area, the 36th-most populous, and the sixth-least densely populated of the 50 United States.

Inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before European exploration, New Mexico was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. Later, it was part of independent Mexico before becoming a U.S. territory and eventually a U.S. state as a result of the Mexican–American War. Among U.S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanics, including descendants of the original Spanish colonists who have lived in the area for more than 400 years beginning in 1598. It has the second-highest percentage of Native Americans as a proportion of the population after Alaska, and the fourth-highest total number of Native Americans after California, Oklahoma, and Arizona. The major Native American nations in the state are Navajo, Pueblo, and Apache peoples. The demography and culture of the state are shaped by these strong Hispanic and Native American influences and expressed in the state flag. Its scarlet and gold colors are taken from the royal standards of Spain, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Pueblo-related tribe.

New Mexico, or Nuevo México in Spanish, is often incorrectly believed to have taken its name from the nation of Mexico. However, Spanish explorers recorded this region as New Mexico in 1563, and again in 1581, when they incorrectly believed it contained wealthy Mexica Indian cultures similar to those of the Aztec Empire. The name simply stuck, even though the area had no connection to Mexico or the Mexica Indian tribes. Mexico, formerly a part of New Spain, adopted its name centuries later in 1821, after winning independence from Spanish rule. New Mexico was a part of the independent Mexican Empire and Federal Republic of Mexico for 27 years, 1821 through 1848. New Mexico and Mexico developed as neighboring Spanish-speaking communities under Spanish rule, with relatively independent histories.