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JavaScript is a high-level, dynamic, untyped, and interpreted programming language. It has been standardized in the ECMAScript language specification. Alongside HTML and CSS, JavaScript is one of the three core technologies of World Wide Web content production; the majority of websites employ it, and all modern Web browsers support it without the need for plug-ins. JavaScript is prototype-based with first-class functions, making it a multi-paradigm language, supporting object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styles. It has an API for working with text, arrays, dates and regular expressions, but does not include any I/O, such as networking, storage, or graphics facilities, relying for these upon the host environment in which it is embedded.

JavaScript
Unofficial JavaScript logo 2.svg
Paradigm Multi-paradigm: scripting, object-oriented (prototype-based), imperative, functional, event-driven
Designed by Brendan Eich
Developer Netscape Communications Corporation, Mozilla Foundation, Ecma International
First appeared May 23, 1995; 21 years ago (1995-05-23)
Stable release
ECMAScript 2016 / June 17, 2016; 6 months ago (2016-06-17)
Typing discipline dynamic, duck
Major implementations
V8, JavaScriptCore, SpiderMonkey, Chakra
Influenced by
Lua, Scheme, Perl, Self, Java, C, Python, AWK, HyperTalk
Influenced
ActionScript, AtScript, CoffeeScript, Dart, JScript .NET, LiveScript, Objective-J, Opa, Perl 6, QML, TypeScript
JavaScript
Filename extension .js
Internet media type
  • application/javascript
  • text/javascript (obsolete)
Uniform Type Identifier (UTI)

com.netscape.javascript-source

Type of format Scripting language

JavaScript (/ˈævəˌskrɪpt/) is a high-level, dynamic, untyped, and interpreted programming language. It has been standardized in the ECMAScript language specification. Alongside HTML and CSS, JavaScript is one of the three core technologies of World Wide Web content production; the majority of websites employ it, and all modern Web browsers support it without the need for plug-ins. JavaScript is prototype-based with first-class functions, making it a multi-paradigm language, supporting object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styles. It has an API for working with text, arrays, dates and regular expressions, but does not include any I/O, such as networking, storage, or graphics facilities, relying for these upon the host environment in which it is embedded.

Although there are strong outward similarities between JavaScript and Java, including language name, syntax, and respective standard libraries, the two are distinct languages and differ greatly in their design. JavaScript was influenced by programming languages such as Self and Scheme.

JavaScript is also used in environments that are not Web-based, such as PDF documents, site-specific browsers, and desktop widgets. Newer and faster JavaScript virtual machines (VMs) and platforms built upon them have also increased the popularity of JavaScript for server-side Web applications. On the client side, developers have traditionally implemented JavaScript as an interpreted language, but more recent browsers perform just-in-time compilation. Programmers also use JavaScript in video-game development, in crafting desktop and mobile applications, and in server-side network programming with run-time environments such as Node.js.