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GSM , is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile phones, first deployed in Finland in July 1991. As of 2014 it has become the de facto global standard for mobile communications – with over 90% market share, operating in over 219 countries and territories.

The GSM logo is used to identify compatible handsets and equipment. The dots symbolize three clients in the home network and one roaming client.

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, originally Groupe SpécialMobile), is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile phones, first deployed in Finland in July 1991. As of 2014 it has become the de facto global standard for mobile communications – with over 90% market share, operating in over 219 countries and territories.

2G networks developed as a replacement for first generation (1G) analog cellular networks, and the GSM standard originally described a digital, circuit-switched network optimized for full duplex voice telephony. This expanded over time to include data communications, first by circuit-switched transport, then by packet data transport via GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) and EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution or EGPRS).

Subsequently, the 3GPP developed third-generation (3G) UMTS standards followed by fourth-generation (4G) LTE Advanced standards, which do not form part of the ETSI GSM standard.

"GSM" is a trademark owned by the GSM Association. It may also refer to the (initially) most common voice codec used, Full Rate.

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