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The Congregation for Bishops is the department of the Roman Curia that oversees the selection of most new bishops. Its proposals require papal approval to take effect. The Congregation schedules the visits at five-year intervals that bishops are required to make to Rome, when they meet with the pope and various departments of the Curia. It also manages the formation of new dioceses. It is one of the more influential Congregations, since it strongly influences the human resources policy of the church.

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The Congregation for Bishops (Latin: Congregatio pro Episcopis) is the department of the Roman Curia that oversees the selection of most new bishops. Its proposals require papal approval to take effect. The Congregation schedules the visits at five-year intervals ("ad limina") that bishops are required to make to Rome, when they meet with the pope and various departments of the Curia. It also manages the formation of new dioceses. It is one of the more influential Congregations, since it strongly influences the human resources policy of the church.

The Congregation for Bishops does not have jurisdiction over mission territories and areas managed by the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, which has responsibility for Eastern Catholics everywhere and also for Latin Catholics in the Middle East and Greece. Where appointment of bishops and changes in diocesan boundaries require consultation with civil governments, the Secretariat of State has primary responsibility, but must consult the Congregation for Bishops.