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John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was the 30th President of the United States . A Republican lawyer from Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics, eventually becoming governor of that state. His response to the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight and gave him a reputation as a man of decisive action. Soon after, he was elected as the 29th vice president in 1920 and succeeded to the presidency upon the sudden death of Warren G. Harding in 1923. Elected in his own right in 1924, he gained a reputation as a small-government conservative, and also as a man who said very little, although having a rather dry sense of humor.

Calvin Coolidge cph.3g10777.jpg
Coolidge in the late 1910s
30th President of the United States
In office
August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929
Vice President None
Charles G. Dawes
Preceded by Warren G. Harding
Succeeded by Herbert Hoover
29th Vice President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923
President Warren G. Harding
Preceded by Thomas R. Marshall
Succeeded by Charles G. Dawes
48th Governor of Massachusetts
In office
January 2, 1919 – January 6, 1921
Lieutenant Channing H. Cox
Preceded by Samuel W. McCall
Succeeded by Channing H. Cox
46th Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
In office
January 6, 1916 – January 2, 1919
Governor Samuel W. McCall
Preceded by Grafton D. Cushing
Succeeded by Channing H. Cox
President of the Massachusetts Senate
In office
1914–1915
Preceded by Levi H. Greenwood
Succeeded by Henry Gordon Wells
Member of the Massachusetts Senate
In office
1912–1915
Mayor of Northampton, Massachusetts
In office
1910–1911
Preceded by James W. O'Brien
Succeeded by William Feiker
Member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives
In office
1907–1908
Personal details
Born John Calvin Coolidge Jr.
(1872-07-04)July 4, 1872
Plymouth Notch, Vermont, U.S.
Died January 5, 1933(1933-01-05) (aged 60)
Northampton, Massachusetts, U.S.
Cause of death Coronary thrombosis
Resting place Plymouth Notch Cemetery, Plymouth, Vermont
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Grace Goodhue (m. 1905)
Children 2, including John Coolidge
Alma mater Amherst College
Profession Lawyer
Religion Congregationalism
Signature Cursive signature in ink

John Calvin Coolidge Jr. (/ˈklɪ/; July 4, 1872 – January 5, 1933) was the 30th President of the United States (1923–29). A Republican lawyer from Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics, eventually becoming governor of that state. His response to the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight and gave him a reputation as a man of decisive action. Soon after, he was elected as the 29th vice president in 1920 and succeeded to the presidency upon the sudden death of Warren G. Harding in 1923. Elected in his own right in 1924, he gained a reputation as a small-government conservative, and also as a man who said very little, although having a rather dry sense of humor.

Coolidge restored public confidence in the White House after the scandals of his predecessor's administration, and left office with considerable popularity. As a Coolidge biographer wrote, "He embodied the spirit and hopes of the middle class, could interpret their longings and express their opinions. That he did represent the genius of the average is the most convincing proof of his strength." Coolidge's retirement was relatively short, as he died at the age of 60 in January 1933, less than two months before his direct successor, Herbert Hoover, left office.

Though his reputation underwent a renaissance during the Ronald Reagan administration, modern assessments of Coolidge's presidency are divided. He is adulated among advocates of smaller government and laissez-faire; supporters of an active central government generally view him less favorably, while both sides praise his stalwart support of racial equality.

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