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Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Bacillus species can be obligate aerobes , or facultative anaerobes . They will test positive for the enzyme catalase when there has been oxygen used or present. Ubiquitous in nature, Bacillus includes both free-living and parasitic pathogenic species. Under stressful environmental conditions, the bacteria can produce oval endospores that are not true 'spores', but to which the bacteria can reduce themselves and remain in a dormant state for very long periods. These characteristics originally defined the genus, but not all such species are closely related, and many have been moved to other genera of the Firmicutes.

Bacillus
Bacillus subtilis Gram.jpg
Bacillus subtilis, Gram stained
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Division: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Bacillales
Family: Bacillaceae
Genus: Bacillus
Species

B. acidiceler
B. acidicola
B. acidiproducens
B. acidocaldarius
B. acidoterrestris
B. aeolius
B. aerius
B. aerophilus
B. agaradhaerens
B. agri
B. aidingensis
B. akibai
B. alcalophilus
B. algicola
B. alginolyticus
B. alkalidiazotrophicus
B. alkalinitrilicus
B. alkalisediminis
B. alkalitelluris
B. altitudinis
B. alveayuensis
B. alvei
B. amyloliquefaciens

  • B. a. subsp. amyloliquefaciens
  • B. a. subsp. plantarum

B. aminovorans
B. amylolyticus
B. andreesenii
B. aneurinilyticus
B. anthracis
B. aquimaris
B. arenosi
B. arseniciselenatis
B. arsenicus
B. aurantiacus
B. arvi
B. aryabhattai
B. asahii
B. atrophaeus
B. axarquiensis
B. azotofixans
B. azotoformans
B. badius
B. barbaricus
B. bataviensis
B. beijingensis
B. benzoevorans
B. beringensis
B. berkeleyi
B. beveridgei
B. bogoriensis
B. boroniphilus
B. borstelensis
B. brevis Migula
B. butanolivorans
B. canaveralius
B. carboniphilus
B. cecembensis
B. cellulosilyticus
B. centrosporus
B. cereus
B. chagannorensis
B. chitinolyticus
B. chondroitinus
B. choshinensis
B. chungangensis
B. cibi
B. circulans
B. clarkii
B. clausii
B. coagulans
B. coahuilensis
B. cohnii
B. composti
B. curdlanolyticus
B. cycloheptanicus
B. cytotoxicus
B. daliensis
B. decisifrondis
B. decolorationis
B. deserti
B. dipsosauri
B. drentensis
B. edaphicus
B. ehimensis
B. eiseniae
B. enclensis
B. endophyticus
B. endoradicis
B. farraginis
B. fastidiosus
B. fengqiuensis
B. firmus
B. flexus
B. foraminis
B. fordii
B. formosus
B. fortis
B. fumarioli
B. funiculus
B. fusiformis
B. galactophilus
B. galactosidilyticus
B. galliciensis
B. gelatini
B. gibsonii
B. ginsengi
B. ginsengihumi
B. ginsengisoli
B. globisporus

  • B. g. subsp. globisporus
  • B. g. subsp. marinus

B. glucanolyticus
B. gordonae
B. gottheilii
B. graminis
B. halmapalus
B. haloalkaliphilus
B. halochares
B. halodenitrificans
B. halodurans
B. halophilus
B. halosaccharovorans
B. hemicellulosilyticus
B. hemicentroti
B. herbersteinensis
B. horikoshii
B. horneckiae
B. horti
B. huizhouensis
B. humi
B. hwajinpoensis
B. idriensis
B. indicus
B. infantis
B. infernus
B. insolitus
B. invictae
B. iranensis
B. isabeliae
B. isronensis
B. jeotgali
B. kaustophilus
B. kobensis
B. kochii
B. kokeshiiformis
B. koreensis
B. korlensis
B. kribbensis
B. krulwichiae
B. laevolacticus
B. larvae
B. laterosporus
B. lautus
B. lehensis
B. lentimorbus
B. lentus
B. licheniformis
B. ligniniphilus
B. litoralis
B. locisalis
B. luciferensis
B. luteolus
B. luteus
B. macauensis
B. macerans
B. macquariensis
B. macyae
B. malacitensis
B. mannanilyticus
B. marisflavi
B. marismortui
B. marmarensis
B. massiliensis
B. megaterium
B. mesonae
B. methanolicus
B. methylotrophicus
B. migulanus
B. mojavensis
B. mucilaginosus
B. muralis
B. murimartini
B. mycoides
B. naganoensis
B. nanhaiensis
B. nanhaiisediminis
B. nealsonii
B. neidei
B. neizhouensis
B. niabensis
B. niacini
B. novalis
B. oceanisediminis
B. odysseyi
B. okhensis
B. okuhidensis
B. oleronius
B. oryzaecorticis
B. oshimensis
B. pabuli
B. pakistanensis
B. pallidus
B. pallidus
B. panacisoli
B. panaciterrae
B. pantothenticus
B. parabrevis
B. paraflexus
B. pasteurii
B. patagoniensis
B. peoriae
B. persepolensis
B. persicus
B. pervagus
B. plakortidis
B. pocheonensis
B. polygoni
B. polymyxa
B. popilliae
B. pseudalcalophilus
B. pseudofirmus
B. pseudomycoides
B. psychrodurans
B. psychrophilus
B. psychrosaccharolyticus
B. psychrotolerans
B. pulvifaciens
B. pumilus
B. purgationiresistens
B. pycnus
B. qingdaonensis
B. qingshengii
B. reuszeri
B. rhizosphaerae
B. rigui
B. ruris
B. safensis
B. salarius
B. salexigens
B. saliphilus
B. schlegelii
B. sediminis
B. selenatarsenatis
B. selenitireducens
B. seohaeanensis
B. shacheensis
B. shackletonii
B. siamensis
B. silvestris
B. simplex
B. siralis
B. smithii
B. soli
B. solimangrovi
B. solisalsi
B. songklensis
B. sonorensis
B. sphaericus
B. sporothermodurans
B. stearothermophilus
B. stratosphericus
B. subterraneus
B. subtilis

  • B. s. subsp. inaquosorum
  • B. s. subsp. spizizenii
  • B. s. subsp. subtilis

B. taeanensis
B. tequilensis
B. thermantarcticus
B. thermoaerophilus
B. thermoamylovorans
B. thermocatenulatus
B. thermocloacae
B. thermocopriae
B. thermodenitrificans
B. thermoglucosidasius
B. thermolactis
B. thermoleovorans
B. thermophilus
B. thermoruber
B. thermosphaericus
B. thiaminolyticus
B. thioparans
B. thuringiensis
B. tianshenii
B. trypoxylicola
B. tusciae
B. validus
B. vallismortis
B. vedderi
B. velezensis
B. vietnamensis
B. vireti
B. vulcani
B. wakoensis
B. weihenstephanensis
B. xiamenensis
B. xiaoxiensis
B. zhanjiangensis

Gram stain of a Bacillus species

Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Bacillus species can be obligate aerobes (oxygen reliant), or facultative anaerobes (having the ability to be aerobic or anaerobic). They will test positive for the enzyme catalase when there has been oxygen used or present. Ubiquitous in nature, Bacillus includes both free-living (nonparasitic) and parasitic pathogenic species. Under stressful environmental conditions, the bacteria can produce oval endospores that are not true 'spores', but to which the bacteria can reduce themselves and remain in a dormant state for very long periods. These characteristics originally defined the genus, but not all such species are closely related, and many have been moved to other genera of the Firmicutes.

Many species of Bacillus can produce copious amounts of enzymes which are made use of in different industries. Some species can form intracellular inclusions of polyhydroxyalkanoates under certain adverse environmental conditions, as in a lack of elements such as phosphorus, nitrogen, or oxygen combined with an excessive supply of carbon sources.

B. subtilis has proved a valuable model for research. Other species of Bacillus are important pathogens, causing anthrax and food poisoning.

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