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The Arab Spring or The Democracy Spring was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups and civil wars in the Arab world that began on 17 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution, and spread throughout the countries of the Arab League and its surroundings. Major insurgencies and civil wars in Iraq, Libya, Syria, and Yemen resulted, along with civil uprisings in Bahrain and Egypt, large street demonstrations in Algeria, Iran, Lebanon, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman and Sudan and minor protests in Djibouti, Mauritania, the Palestinian territories, Saudi Arabia, Somalia and the Western Sahara. A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world is Ash-sha`b yurid isqat an-nizam .

Arab Spring
Date 17 December 2010 – mid-2012
Location Arab world
Causes
Goals
Methods
Status
  • Tunisia: President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali ousted, and government overthrown.
  • Egypt: President Hosni Mubarak ousted, and government overthrown.
  • Libya: Leader Muammar Gaddafi killed following a civil war that saw a foreign military intervention, and government overthrown.
  • Yemen: President Ali Abdullah Saleh ousted, and power handed to a national unity government.
  • Syria: President Bashar al-Assad faces civil uprising against his rule that deteriorates into armed rebellion and eventual full-scale civil war.
  • Bahrain: Civil uprising against the government crushed by authorities and Saudi-led intervention.
  • Kuwait, Lebanon and Oman: Government changes implemented in response to protests.
  • Morocco and Jordan: Constitutional reforms implemented in response to protests.
  • Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Mauritania, and other Arab countries: Protests.
Casualties
Death(s) thousands (International estimate; see table below)

The Arab Spring or The Democracy Spring (Arabic: الربيع الديمقراطي‎‎, is (Arabic: الربيع العربي‎‎, ar-rabīˁ al-ˁarabī) was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups and civil wars in the Arab world that began on 17 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution, and spread throughout the countries of the Arab League and its surroundings. Major insurgencies and civil wars in Iraq, Libya, Syria, and Yemen resulted, along with civil uprisings in Bahrain and Egypt, large street demonstrations in Algeria, Iran, Lebanon, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman and Sudan and minor protests in Djibouti, Mauritania, the Palestinian territories, Saudi Arabia, Somalia and the Western Sahara. A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world is Ash-sha`b yurid isqat an-nizam ("the people want to bring down the regime").

The wave of initial revolutions and protests faded by mid-2012, as many Arab Spring demonstrations were met with violent responses from authorities, as well as from pro-government militias and counter-demonstrators. These attacks were answered with violence from protestors in some cases. Large-scale conflicts resulted—the Syrian Civil War, Iraqi insurgency and the following civil war, the Egyptian Crisis and coup, the Libyan Crisis, and the Crisis in Yemen.

A power struggle continued after the immediate response to the Arab Spring. While leadership changed and regimes were held accountable, power went up for grabs across the Arab world. Ultimately it came down to a contentious battle between a consolidation of power by religious elites and the growing support for democracy in many Muslim-majority states.

Some have referred to the succeeding and still ongoing conflicts as the Arab Winter. As of July 2016, only the uprising in Tunisia resulted in a transition to constitutional democratic governance.

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