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Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th-most extensive and the 24th-most populous of the U.S. states. At 1,300 miles , Alabama has one of the nation's longest navigable inland waterways.

State of Alabama
Flag of Alabama State seal of Alabama
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Yellowhammer State, Heart of Dixie, The Cotton State
Motto(s): Latin: Audemus iura nostra defendere We dare defend our rights
Map of the United States with Alabama highlighted
Official language English
Spoken languages

  • English 95.1%
  • Spanish 3.1%
Demonym Alabaman or Alabamian
Capital Montgomery
Largest city Birmingham
Largest metro Birmingham metropolitan area
Area Ranked 30th
 • Total 52,419 sq mi
(135,765 km)
 • Width 190 miles (305 km)
 • Length 330 miles (531 km)
 • % water 3.20
 • Latitude 30° 11′ N to 35° N
 • Longitude 84° 53′ W to 88° 28′ W
Population Ranked 24th
 • Total 4,858,990 (2015 est.)
 • Density 94.7 (2011 est.)/sq mi  (36.5 (2011 est.)/km)
Ranked 27th
 • Median household income $44,509 (47th)
Elevation
 • Highest point Mount Cheaha
2,413 ft (735.5 m)
 • Mean 500 ft  (150 m)
 • Lowest point Gulf of Mexico
sea level
Before statehood Alabama Territory
Admission to Union December 14, 1819 (22nd)
Governor Robert J. Bentley (R)
Lieutenant Governor Kay Ivey (R)
Legislature Alabama Legislature
 • Upper house Senate R-25, D-8
 • Lower house House of Representatives R-72, D-33
U.S. Senators Richard Shelby (R)
Jeff Sessions (R)
U.S. House delegation 6 Republicans, 1 Democrat (list)
Time zones  
 • most of state Central: UTC −6/−5
 • Phenix City, Alabama area Eastern: UTC −5/−4
ISO 3166 US-AL
Abbreviations AL, Ala.
Website alabama.gov
Alabama state symbols
Flag of Alabama.svg
Seal of Alabama.svg
Living insignia
Amphibian Red Hills salamander
Bird Yellowhammer, wild turkey
Butterfly Eastern tiger swallowtail
Fish Largemouth bass, fighting tarpon
Flower Camellia, oak-leaf hydrangea
Insect Monarch butterfly
Mammal American black bear
Reptile Alabama red-bellied turtle
Tree Longleaf pine
Inanimate insignia
Beverage Conecuh Ridge Whiskey
Colors Red, white
Dance Square dance
Food Pecan, blackberry, peach
Fossil Basilosaurus
Gemstone Star blue quartz
Mineral Hematite
Rock Marble
Shell Johnstone's junonia
Slogan Share The Wonder,
Alabama the beautiful,
Where America finds its voice,
Sweet Home Alabama,
"Heart of Dixie"
Soil Bama
Song "Alabama"
Other Racking horse
State route marker
Alabama state route marker
State quarter
Alabama quarter dollar coin
Released in 2003
Lists of United States state symbols

Alabama (/ˌæləˈbæmə/) is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th-most extensive and the 24th-most populous of the U.S. states. At 1,300 miles (2,100 km), Alabama has one of the nation's longest navigable inland waterways.

From the American Civil War until World War II, Alabama, like many states in the southern U.S., suffered economic hardship, in part because of continued dependence on agriculture. Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s, as it did not regularly reapportion the legislature from 1901 to 1961; urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. African Americans and poor whites were essentially disenfranchised altogether by the state constitution of 1901, a status that continued into the mid-1960s before being alleviated by federal legislation. Exclusion of minorities continued under at-large voting systems in most counties; some changes were made through a series of omnibus court cases in the late 1980s to establish different electoral systems.

Following World War II, Alabama experienced growth as the state's economy changed from one primarily based on agriculture to one with diversified interests. The power of the Solid South in Congress gained the establishment or expansion of multiple United States Armed Forces installations, which helped bridge the gap between an agricultural and industrial economy during the mid-20th century. The state economy in the 21st century is based on management, automotive, finance, manufacturing, aerospace, mineral extraction, healthcare, education, retail, and technology.

Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is also known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the Cotton State. The state tree is the longleaf pine, and the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery. The largest city by population is Birmingham, which has long been the most industrialized city, and largest city by land area is Huntsville. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana.